By Stephanie SchupskaUniversity of GeorgiaMillions of years. That’s the time period Andrew Paterson works with in his research. He’s searching for clues as to why a certain plant turned out the way it did, why a certain gene was preserved and another discarded.His current research at the University of Georgia centers on polyploids, organisms that have twice the normal number of chromosomes. His findings were published online Feb. 8 in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America” (PNAS).“We each have one chromosome from mom and one from dad,” said Paterson, director of UGA’s Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory. “Once in a long while, the reproductive process makes an error. It makes four, two from each parent. Only a fraction of these organisms survive.”Plants are much more tolerant of such errors than animals. By studying those plants that have survived, Paterson hopes to find answers to which extra genes a plant keeps and which it discards, a choice that continues to shape the world.“I think there will be quite a lot of interest in this research,” Paterson said of the study of polyploids. “People are realizing that polyploids are more common than they thought. It was surprising that rice was an ancient polyploid. I think that the role of genetic duplication and polyploidy in evolution has generally been underestimated.”Paterson’s PGML colleague, John Bowers, built the groundwork; and former UGA graduate student Brad Chapman started the present experiment in 2003 as part of his dissertation. Paterson’s lab is doing a follow-up study to “ask what happens to genes after they’re duplicated,” he said. “Dr. Bowers’ research set the structure for asking questions.”Before Paterson published his study, scientists believed that polyploid genes would change quickly. “We found the opposite, that duplicated genes change slowly,” he said.In his article, Paterson says that “genome duplication, a punctuational event in the evolution of a lineage, is more common than previously suspected.” At the same time, he says, there is actually less species-wide polymorphism than scientists had thought.This particular study centers on rice and Arabidopsis, a small flowering plant commonly called thale cress or mouse-ear cress. It’s related to cabbage and mustard. These plants were traditionally thought to be diploids. But Bowers, Paterson and Chapman showed them to be ancient polyploids.Paterson said major crops such as cotton, wheat, soybeans, maize (corn), sugar cane, alfalfa, potatoes, tobacco and some grasses are recent polyploids. They genetically mutated from 10,000 to a few million years ago.Research suggests that all plants, and even mammals, may be ancient polyploids, he said. In recent years, scientists have successfully made artificial polyploids. This work could lead to their more effective use to improve crops.(Stephanie Schupska is a news editor with the University ofGeorgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York This lovely Contemporary boasting Spanish tile, cathedral ceilings and sitting on a beautifully landscaped acre on a cul-de-sac is listed for sale at 6 Lorraine Ct. in Medford.Built in 1989, this five-bedroom home with three and a half bathrooms is perfect for entertaining, as it includes a wet bar, in-ground pool, deck, sunroom overlooking the pool and a spacious backyard.The house comes equipped with a large eat-in kitchen, formal dining room, fully finished basement with a gym and built-in safe, a fireplace and central air conditioning. Outside, it also has an attached two-car garage and a koi pond.The property is near Twelve Pines Park, Hallock Park and a Model Airplane Park. It’s about two miles from the Patchogue Long Island Rail Road station, downtown Patchogue and a mile from Sunrise Highway. It’s in the Patchogue-Medford School District.The asking price is $699,999, not including the annual property taxes of $16,288.The real estate agent listed for the property is Cheryl Lyes of Coldwell Banker M&D Good Life. She can be reached at 631-289-1400.
However, in Wednesday’s announcement he praised the standard of MLS opposition and said the match would be a big part of their preparations. “We’d like to thank Major League Soccer for the invitation to take part in the 2015 All-Star Game,” he said in a statement. “The fact that this will be our only fixture outside of Europe during pre-season says a lot about how we view this game. “We enjoyed three tough matches last summer in North America and the quality of football in MLS continues to grow every year. “Pre-season is an important time for us and we are looking forward to being a part of one of the biggest events on the US football calendar. “We know the quality of the facilities will be top-class and we see this fixture against the best players from MLS as good preparation.” However, the match means Tottenham will spend a significant portion of the summer travelling as they are already committed to a post-season tour of Malaysia and Australia. Speaking in early March, Pochettino had said he had approved the plan to head Down Under because he wanted to get the travelling out of the way before the pre-season. Tottenham are to play the MLS All-Stars in Denver in July, announcing the fixture a little over a month after manager Mauricio Pochettino said he had no desire to travel long distances for the pre-season. Press Association “It is better to spend time doing commercial business at the end of the season,” he said at the time. “I’ve had bad experiences of (pre-season) tours, when you’re going far away. “Experiences as a player help as a manager. These things can upset your preparations.” The match will take place on July 29, and Tottenham said it would be their only match outside Europe this summer. Last month, Pochettino said: “It’s never proper for the team at the beginning of the season to go to Asia or America.”
FRYEBURG — Five Hancock County wrestlers advanced to the upcoming All-State championships with top-four finishes in Saturday’s state championship meet at Fryeburg Academy.Mount Desert Island’s Baylor Landsman earned the best finish of any local wrestler on the day with a third-place effort at 170 pounds. After beating Tyler Avery of Madison and losing to eventual eventual champion Tyler Cox of Medomak Valley, Landsman beat Evan Cash of Wells in the consolation semifinals and Alex Munson of Mattanawcook Academy in the consolation title bout.For Ellsworth, Matt Reid and Noah Hughes claimed fourth-places finishes at 126 pounds and 160 pounds, respectively. Reid earned a quarterfinal win over Maine Central Institute’s Malik Keresey and a consolation semifinal win over Zac Spizuoco of Dexter, and Hughes won a 15-5 major decision over Medomak Valley’s Nolan Grubb in the quarterfinals before beating Foxcroft’s Sam Robinson in the consolation semis.For Bucksport, Grayson Fernald posted two wins at 195 pounds to claim fourth. In the heavyweight class, Gavin Billings claimed fourth with wins over Madison’s Clarke Leblanc and Belfast’s Ben Watts.This is placeholder textThis is placeholder textBucksport placed 15th as a team with Ellsworth claiming 17th and MDI finishing 20th. Wells won the team title with a whopping 130 points, 34 more than second-place Mattanawcook.Landsman, Reid, Hughes, Fernald and Billings are now eligible to compete in the New England qualifying (All-State) meet. The event is set to begin at 9 a.m. next Saturday, Feb. 29, at Noble High School in North Berwick.